Well-functioning contract law is a crucial prerequisite for economic development. However, even though international trade has increased enormously in recent decades, we still know little about the contract enforcement mechanisms that exist in today's globalised markets. The aim of this work is to shed light on the governance of complex cross-border contracts by developing a comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding the relevance of both formal and informal institutions. This framework is then applied to an empirical study of cross-border software development contracts. Combining a unique data set of 41 qualitative expert interviews with statistical data and surveys, the author demonstrates that state contract laws show fundamental signs of dysfunction across borders. Companies engaged in globalised exchange therefore rarely use this mechanism. Even the European Union's supranational enforcement order is, in practice, insignificant. Against all expectations, international commercial arbitration also turns out to be limited in its ability to provide a workable legal infrastructure for global commerce. With global trade lacking a reliable formal legal order, companies have reacted by creating their own informal governance structures. This book explains how complex exchange in global markets has emerged in the absence of a global legal order.
Ever since introducing the concept in the late 1980s, historians have been debating the origins, nature, scope, and limitations of the New Deal order—the combination of ideas, electoral and governing strategies, redistributive social policies, and full employment economics that became the standard-bearer for political liberalism in the wake of the Great Depression and commanded Democratic majorities for decades. In the decline and break-up of the New Deal coalition historians found keys to understanding the transformations that, by the late twentieth century, were shifting American politics to the right. In Beyond the New Deal Order, contributors bring fresh perspective to the historic meaning and significance of New Deal liberalism while identifying the elements of a distinctively "neoliberal" politics that emerged in its wake. Part I offers contemporary interpretations of the New Deal with essays that focus on its approach to economic security and inequality, its view of participatory governance, and its impact on the Republican party as well as Congressional politics. Part II features essays that examine how intersectional inequities of class, race, and gender were embedded in New Deal labor law, labor standards, and economic policy and brought demands for employment, economic justice, and collective bargaining protections to the forefront of civil rights and social movement agendas throughout the postwar decades. Part III considers the precepts and defining narratives of a "post" New Deal political structure, while the closing essay contemplates the extent to which we may now be witnessing the end of a neoliberal system anchored in free-market ideology, neo-Victorian moral aspirations, and post-Communist global politics. Contributors: Eileen Boris, Angus Burgin, Gary Gerstle, Romain Huret, Meg Jacobs, Michael Kazin, Sophia Lee, Nelson Lichtenstein, Joe McCartin, Alice O'Connor, Paul Sabin, Reuel Schiller, Kit Smemo, David Stein, Jean-Christian Vinel, Julian Zelizer.
Beyond Secular Order is the first of a two-volume workthat expands upon renowned theologian John Milbank’sinnovative attempt to understand both theology and modern thoughtbegun in his previously published classic text Theology andSocial Theory. Continues Milbank’s innovative attempt to understand boththeology and modern thought begun in Theology and SocialTheory – considered a classic work in the development ofsystematic theology Authored by one of the world’s most influential andhighly regarded contemporary theologians Draws on a sweep of ideas and thinkers to argue that modernsecularism is a form of Christian heresy that developed from theMiddle Ages and can only be overcome by a renewed account ofChristendom Shows how this heresy can be transformed into a richer blend ofreligion, modernity and politics Reveals how there is a fundamental homology between modernideas about ontology and knowledge and modern ideas about politicalaction, expressed in both theory and practice
Model theory is one of the central branches of mathematical logic. The field has evolved rapidly in the last few decades. This book is an introduction to current trends in model theory, and contains a collection of articles authored by top researchers in the field. It is intended as a reference for students as well as senior researchers.
Beyond the Western Liberal Order explores the international thought of Yanaihara Tadao (1893-1961), the most prominent Japanese social scientist of empire, population migration, and colonial policy during the 1920s and 1930s. Nakano provides a detailed analysis of Yanaihara's study of empire, including global migration, economic disparity and hierarchy, ethnic conflict, and regionalism. This comprehensive work concludes by demonstrating the contemporary relevance of Yanaihara's ideas to current debates and discussion in International Relations.
Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many, not only the dominance of the U.S. in the post-Cold War era is much exaggerated, but also its days as a hyper-power are ending. Instead, the world is slowly but steadily evolving towards what Dr. Baofu originally calls the dawn of 'the post-post-Cold War era' in 'the world of titans' for a tremendous remaking of world order, to be governed by different types of empires crossing regional borders. This has important implications for understanding the logic of empire-building, be it in the past, present, or future, to the extent that the current theoretical debate on international relations among different paradigms is as much misleading as obsolete. The current debate also obscures something more tremendous in the long run, in relation to the emergence of what Dr. Baofu proposes as 'the union of the unions' in the farther future that humans have never known, both here on earth and later in deep space.
An asymptotic expansion is a series that provides a sequence of increasingly accurate approximations to a function in a particular limit. The formal definition, given by Poincare (1886, Acta Math. 8:295), is as follows. Given a function,
A lively debate on the constitutionalisation of the international legal order has emerged in recent years. A similar debate has also taken place within the European Union. This book complements that debate, exploring the underlying realities that the moves towards constitutionalism seek to address. It does this by focusing on the substantive interconnections that the EU has developed over the years with the rest of the world, and assesses the practical impact these have both in the development of its legal order as well as in the international community. Based on papers delivered at the bi-annual EU/International Law Forum organised by the University of Bristol in March 2009, this collection of essays examines policy areas of economic governance (trade, financial services, migration, environment), political governance (human rights, criminal law, responses to financing terrorism), security governance (counter-terrorism, use of force, non-proliferation), and the issue of the emergence of European and global values. How are these areas shaped by the interaction between EU law and other legal orders and polities? In what ways does the EU impact on other transnational legal systems? And how are its own rules and principles shaped by such systems? These questions are addressed in the light of the specific legal and political context within which the EU pursues its policies by interacting with the rest of the world.